Far from being the passive containers for semiconductor devices of the past, the packages in today's high performance computers pose numerous challenges in interconnecting, powering, cooling and protecting devices. While semiconductor circuit performance measured in picoseconds continues to improve, computer performance is expected to be in nanoseconds for the rest of this century -a factor of 1000 difference between on-chip and off-chip performance which is attributable to losses associated with the package. Thus the package, which interconnects all the chips to form a particular function such as a central processor, is likely to set the limits on how far computers can evolve. Multichip packaging, which can relax these limits and also improve the reliability and cost at the systems level, is expected to be the basis of all advanced computers in the future. In addition, since this technology allows chips to be spaced more closely, in less space and with less weight, it has the added advantage of being useful in portable consumer electronics as well as in medical, aerospace, automotive and telecommunications products. The multichip technologies with which these applications can be addressed are many. They range from ceramics to polymer-metal thin films to printed wiring boards for interconnections; flip chip, TAB or wire bond for chip-to-substrate connections; and air or water cooling for the removal of heat.
Native America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia comprises 50 chapters offering interpretations of Native American history through the lens of the states in which Indians lived or helped shape. This organizing structure and thematic focus allows readers access to information on specific Indians and the regions they lived in while also providing a collective overview of Native American relationships with the United States as a whole. These three volumes synthesize scholarship on the Native American past to provide both an academic and indigenous perspective on the subject, covering all states and the native peoples who lived in them or were instrumental to their development. Each state is featured in its own chapter, authored by a specialist on the region and its indigenous peoples. Each essay has these main sections: Chronology, Historical Overview, Notable Indians, Cultural Contributions, and Bibliography. The chapters are interspersed with photographs and illustrations that add visual clarity to the written content, put a human face on the individuals described, and depict the peoples and environment with which they interacted.
Every day, young adults are bombarded with marketing designed to influence the way they eat. As a result, many young people overlook the connections between their nutrition and their own best interests. This series gives young people the tools they need to make decisions about lifestyle and diet that will help them be all they can be. The focus is on practical and specific informationsuch as how to choose wisely when eating out, deciphering food labels, and evaluating diet plans. Tables, charts, and illustrations help readers better understand the information.